Smoking and alcohol are the major risk factors for Head and Neck Cancer.
While incidence of head and neck cancer is greatest in those over 50, incidence in young adults is on the rise, most likely attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure. Viral aetiologies are also implicated in cancers more common in certain ethnic groups. Nasopharyngeal cancer is associated with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) as well as genetic and environmental factors, and is the commonest cancer of any site in Southern China

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